TOMATO (Lycopersicon esculentum)
Plant Characteristics
Tomato is a tropical vegetable belonging to the family Solanaceae. The ripe fruits are used as vegetable, salad, soup and in the preparation of sauce, jam and ketchup. The fruit is a rich source of vitamin A and C.
Varieties
Bacterial wilt resistant varieties: Sakthi, Mukthi, Anagha High yielding variety: Pusa Ruby
Seeds And Cultivation
Seed rate: 400 g/ha Raising seedlings Tomato is a transplanted vegetable. Seeds are sown in the nursery and one-month-old seedlings are transplanted to the main field. For sowing the seeds, raised seed beds of 90 to 100 cm width and of convenient length are prepared to which well decomposed organic matter has been incorporated. After sowing the seeds, mulch with green leaves and irrigate with a rose-can daily in the morning. Remove the mulch immediately after germination of the seeds. Restrict irrigation one week before transplanting and irrigate heavily on the previous day of transplanting. Time of planting Transplant the seedlings during October-November for an irrigated crop. Land preparation and transplanting Land is prepared to a fine tilth by thorough ploughing or digging. Well rotten organic manure is incorporated in the soil and seedlings are transplanted in shallow trenches / pits / levelled lands. Transplanted seedlings may be given temporary shade for three to four days during hot days. Spacing Transplant the seedlings at 60 x 60 cm. Stake the plants if necessary
Water Management
Irrigate at two or three days interval
Nutrient Management
Apply well rotten farm yard manure / compost @ 20-25 t/ha at the time of land preparation and mix well with the soil. A fertilizer dose of 75:40:25 kg N:P2O5:K2O / ha may be given. Half the dose of nitrogen, full phosphorus and half of potash may be applied as basal before transplanting. One fourth of nitrogen and half of potash may be applied 20-30 days after planting. The remaining quantity may be applied two months after planting.
Weed Management
Weeding followed by fertilizer application and earthing up may be done at one and two months after transplanting.
Pest Management
Tomato fruit borer attacks developing fruits forming bore holes. Application of Sevin 50 per cent WP @ g/litre of water is effective against this pest. The fields and bunds should be kept weed free to minimize the attack of Thrips.
Disease Management
For avoiding damping off of the seedlings in the nursery, sow the seeds as thin as possible in raised beds prepared in the open area. Spray nursery and main field with 1% Bordeaux mixture at monthly intervals. Uproot and destroy the plants affected by bacterial wilt and mosaic. Cultivate resistant varieties like Sakthi, Mukthi and Anagha in bacterial wilt prone areas.
Harvesting
The fruits are harvested at breaker stage( when ¼ of the surface shows ripening symptoms).
Average Yield
15-30 tonnes/ha for local varieties. 60-80 tonnes/ha for F1 Hybrids.
MAIN PRODUCTION AREAS-Karnal, Sonipat, Yamunanagar, Kurukshetra.