CROP : RED GRAM (Cajanus cajan)
Plant Characteristics
Red Gram belongs to the family Leguminoseae. It is an erect shrub. The leaves are trifoliately compound. The inflorescence is an axillary receme often forming a terminal panicle. Usually two flowers open at a time on the same inflorescence. The flowers are self-pollinated,pollination takes place before the flowers open. The fruit is a pod. Seeds are round or lens shaped.
Red gram (pigeon pea) is less suitable for the tropics. The most favourable temperature range is 18-30ºC. The crop is grown at a wide range of elevation. Red gram can be grown in almost all soil types that are not very poor in lime and are not subjected to waterlogging. Optimum growth and yield are obtained in deep loam soils. Red gram can be grown as mixed crop with groundnut, paddy or tapioca or as a pure crop
Varieties
Variety: SA 1
Seeds And Cultivation
Seed rate
Pure crop 15-20 kg/ha
Mixed crop 6-7 kg/ha
Sowing
Sowing can be done in two seasons. As a mixed crop, sow the seeds in June-July. When sown with groundnut, spacing recommended between rows is 3 to 3.5 m. Red gram can also be sown in paddy fields after the harvest of mundakan crop either broadcast or dibbled. In the dibbled crop, a spacing of 35 cm between rows is recommended. Thinning is to be done, if necessary
Water Management
Red Gram is deep rooted crop and can tolerate drought. During rainy season water should not stand in the field.In the case of prolonged drought during reproductive phase, one or two irrigation may be given
Nutrient Management
Manuring
Lime-500 kg/ha
Cattle manure -3000 kg/ha
N-40 kg/ha
P2O5-80 kg/ha
Weed Management
Weeding and intercultivation once in three weeks will ensure a good crop
Plant Protection
Pod borer is the main pest. For controlling this, spray the crop with 0.1% quinalphos suspension at the time of flowering. The blister beetle, Zonabris, gregariously feeds on the flowers. Against this, malathion 10% DP may be applied at the flowering stage
Harvesting
Harvest the pods when tree-fourths of pods turn brown.The harvested plants are sun dried and threshed by beating the pods with a stick.
Processing
Threshed and cleaned produce should be further sun dried to reduce the moisture content ot less than 11%.
Average Yield
2-2.5 tons of grains per hectare