GARLIC (Allium sativum)
Plant Characteristics
Garlic is an important bulbous vegetable believed to have been originated in Central Asia.It has many medicinal properties.It is a herbaceous annual (for bulb production). The underground bulbs are cream in colour with or without pink tinge. The compound bulb consists of 10-20 bulblets or segments called cloves. These cloves are covered by a parchment membrane. The uninjured bulb contains a colourless odourless water soluble aminoacid called 'allin'.On crushing the bulb,the enzyme 'allinase' acts on 'allin' to produce 'allicin'. The characteristic odour is due to diallyl disulphide.
Varieties
Ooty-1, G 50.
Seeds And Cultivation
Garlic requires cool and moist period during vegetative growth and a dry spell during maturity of the bulbs. Fertile, well-drained loamy soils are ideal for garlic cultivation. Heavy clay soils may result in deformed bulbs. In high ranges of haryana garlic can be planted during October-November
Cloves or bulbils are used for propagation. For planting one hectare, 500 kg of cloves is required. The cloves for planting should be stored for 2-3 months after harvest and cloves weighing 4 g are ideal for planting. The cloves should be soaked in water followed by dipping for 15 minutes in a solution containing 1 ml of dimecron and 1 g of carbendazim dissolved in 1 litre of water for 15 minutes. After drying in shade, cloves can be used for planting.
Dig the land thoroughly and prepare beds of 15 cm height at a width of 1 m and of convenient length. The cloves should be dibbled at a spacing of 15 x 8 cm. Germination will start on the fifth day and it will be completed within 10-15 days.
Earthing up should be done 60 DAP
Water Management
In the initial stages of crop growth frequent irrigations are given to encourage vegetative growth .i.e. once in a week. Irrigation intervals are increased with crop maturity and finally irrigation is with held.
Nutrient Management
Apply N:P2O5: K2O @ 60:120:120 kg/ha 20 days after transplanting (DAP). Topdressing of N should be done @ 60 kg/ha, 45 DAP.
Weed Management
Weeding and hoeing are done as and when necessary. Being a closely planted crop, inter cultural operation has to be done with utmost care avoiding crop injury.
Pest Management
To control thrips and foliar nematode, spray 1 ml of dimecron dissolved in 1 litre of water. To control blast, spray mancozeb (2 g/litre).
Average Yield
Yield may vary from 5-10 t/ha..
MAIN PRODUCTION AREAS-Karnal, Yamunanagar, Fatehabad, Gurgaon, Sirsa