CROP : FRENCH BEAN (Phaseolus vulgaris)
Plant Characteristics
The common bean is the most important economic variety of the genus Phaseolus, and is grown in all parts of the world. It requires much warmth and sun. Cool weather and wind hamper the growth. Medium heavy or light soils are preferred. Highly polymorphic species; annual herb, erect and bushy, 20-60 cm tall, or twining with stems 2-3 m long; with a taproot and nitrogenous nodules; leaves alternate, green or purple, trifoliolate, stipulate, petiolate, a marked pulvinus at base; leaflets ovate, entire; acuminate, 6-15 cm long, 3-11 cm wide; flowers in lax, axillary few-flowered (12) racemes, zygomorphic, variegated, white, pink, or purplish, ca 1 cm long; pods slender, green, yellow, black, or purple, cylindrical or flat, 8-20 cm long, 1-1.5 cm wide; seeds 4-6-(12), usually glabrous, sometimes puberulent, beak prominent; seeds white, red, tan, purple, grey or black, often variegated, reniform, oblong or globose, up to 1.5 cm long, endosperm absent; 100 seeds weigh 10-67 g, depending on cv; germination phanerocotylar.
In haryana this crop can be grown in the high ranges of elevation more than 1000 m, throughout the year. The crop being susceptible to ground frost in higher altitudes (above 1400 m), adequate protection should be given during January-February. Light sandy-loam to clayey-loam soils with good drainage are best suited for the crop
Varieties
There are two types of French beans viz., pole beans and bush beans.
Pole beans: Kentucky Wonder
Bush beans: Contender, Premier, YCD-1, Arka Komal, Tender Green
Seeds And Cultivation
Sowing
Prepare land thoroughly by ploughing. Raised beds are not essential for bush beans. For pole beans, raised beds are advantageous. Spacing of 30 cm x 20 cm is recommended.
Water Management
Manuring
Apply basal dose of 20 t/ha of FYM and N:P2O5:K2O @ 30:40:60 kg/ha. Top dressing with 30 kg N/ha may be given 20 days after sowing
Weed Management
After cultivation
Provide support, 1 to 1.5 m long for trailing the plants. First weeding can be given about 4 weeks after sowing and second weeding will be essential 50 days later. Pods become ready for harvest in 50-60 days in the case of bush beans and in 70-80 days for the pole beans. The average yield of green pods is 8-10 t/ha.
Plant Protection
Treat the seeds with copper based fungicides. Apply malathion 0.05% for controlling aphids