MANDARIN ORANGE (Citrus reticulata)(CITRUS)
Plant Characteristics
Mandarin orange is a subtropical fruit growing in the high ranges of haryana. It requires deep soil rich in humus. The crop cannot withstand waterlogging. It is grown in regions having good drainage.
Selection Criteria For Planting Materials
Planting material
Use seedlings and budded plants for planting. For raising seedlings, extract seeds from selected fruits by squeezing. Wash the seeds free of pulp and dry them. Make seedbeds 1.5 m long, 1 m wide and 15 cm high. Sow the seeds giving a spacing of 13 cm in a row and 3 cm between the rows. Thin the seedlings if necessary or plant selected seedlings in secondary nursery. For budding, use rough lemon (jamber) seedlings as rootstock. Raise the rootstock seedlings in a nursery and when they are 18-24 months old, budding may be done by the inverted "T" method. The best time for budding is from July to September. A month after insertion, lop off the vegetative growth of the seedling above the bud joint completely. The budded plants are ready for planting in 6-12 months
Seeds And Cultivation
Preparation of land
Dig pits of size 70 x 60 x 70 cm at a spacing of 7-8 m at least one month in advance of planting.
Time and method for planting
Planting is done during July-August. Lift the plants carefully with a ball of earth around the roots and plant them carefully without disturbing the roots. While planting, remove the bandage around the bud joint and keep the bud joint at least 10-15 cm above soil surface. Remove the vegetative growth arising below the bud union periodically
In the early stages, give some formative pruning to establish a strong framework. Remove all shoots arising from rootstock below the bud union. Remove dead branches and smear the cut ends with Bordeaux paste. Do not prune the roots.
Crops like coffee, cardamom, banana and pineapple can be planted as intercrops depending on soil fertility status
Nutrient Management
The manuring schedule recommended is given below
Time after planting FYMkg/plant N:P2O5:K2O
1st year 2 40:20:25
2nd year 4 80:35:50
3rd year 6 160:75:100
4th year 8 300:100:150
5th year 10 600:175:300
6th year 10 800:275:750
7th year onwards 10 800:275:1000
Apply organic manure in May and fertilizers in two equal split doses during June-July and in September-October. In addition to the above manures and fertilizers, spray micronutrients such as zinc sulphate: 500 g, copper sulphate: 500 g, manganese sulphate: 300 g and lime: 500 g in 100 litres of water per ha twice in a year during March and October-November.
Weed Management
After cultivation
Give a light digging or ploughing when the rains start.
Pest Management
For controlling citrus butterfly, hand picking of caterpillars and spraying with a contact insecticide are to be done.
To control stem borer incidence, chip off the affected new shoots and spray 0.2% carbaryl suspension once in three months. If borer tunnels have already been formed, inject 1% dichlorvos into the tunnels. To control aphids apply dimethoate 0.05% or monocrotophos 0.05%.
Stem borers (Chelidonium sp., Chloridolum sp. and Nupserha sp.) cause withering of branches. Gum exudes from holes on stems and branches. Accumulation of wood dust on ground around the base is another symptom of borer damage.
Cutting and burning of the affected branches, injecting petrol or suspensions of carbaryl 1% using syringe and painting the stem with carbaryl 0.3% suspension during May are recommended against the borers.
Disease Management
Among diseases, dieback, root and collar rot are important. Periodical removal of dried twigs and application of Bordeaux paste on cut ends and application of Bordeaux mixture can control dieback disease.
Against root and collar rot, removal of soil from the base of the trunk, scraping of the dead bark and application of lime-sulphur have to be done. As an alternative, smear Bordeaux paste over the treated roots and stem. Exposing the main roots to a depth of about 30 cm is also advised
MAIN PRODUCTION AREAS-Sirsa, Hisar, Ambala, Gurgaon, Fatehabad